Managing Imagination

Since April of 2014 I have been posting my findings here as part of a systematic way to understand and mitigate Upsets. I logged Upsets as they occurred, measured my heart rate variability during periods of stress and connected types of Upsets to different types of thought.

The first real insight that came from self reporting Upsets was that the majority of them were Self Induced and of those the majority were anticipating future negative events. The fundamental tool we have which is the ability to imagine a future scenario is the source of most of the stress – thoughts that anticipate a negative future outcome.

Another insight is the volume of thought. Thinking I was capturing a high number of Upsets in my reporting was completely blown apart by watching how often my physiology altered based on thought. Was looked at the beginning to be a 5 to 8 time a day volume was actually up to 450 thoughts a day that could potentially cause Upset. And that volume is constant. So any plan that includes eliminating thought is irrelevant. The plan must be based in how I respond to Upsets.

Looking at the lessons learned the core skill to develop is managing imagination. Imagination is our engine of progress, it shows us what is possible. It is also the source of what we believe are our misfires, misalignments and Upsets. Believing too much in imagination immerses us in our miserable misfires. Completely eradicating imagination robs us of our ability to be motivated, plan and progress. Somehow we have to find a middle ground of practical imagination, a place where we see what is inspiring and possible while knowing when to discount those scenarios that are impossibly negative and exaggerated.

Dual-3-Back & HRV Update

I have continued the experiment I reported earlier on playing Dual-n-back game while monitoring my progression Heart Rate Variability (HRV). I have manually set the game to Dual-3-back, meaning I have to remember a location and letter that is three iterations in the past. For a full explanation of how much cognitive load that adds to the situation you can read Gwern’s FAQ on Dual-n-back here. I can tell you from experience that 3 back is a lot harder than 2 back. The data shows the difference in scores:

Slide1

 

You can see I was reliably getting percent scores in the 70′s and 80′s playing 2 back. When I increased the difficulty to 3 back my scores dropped to the 30′s. An you can see a progression where the most recent plays are moving toward 50%. How has this effected my HRV? Here is my rMSSD for the last 8 sessions of 2 back and first 19 sessions of 3 back.

Slide2

 

As I have reported before an rMSSD above 48 for a 30 second reading occurs when I am relaxed and feeling stress free. Each of these games are 4.5 minutes long, so that is 9 consecutive 30 second readings. You can see the 2 back games toward the end were averaging above 50 so I was feeling stress free during those sessions which makes sense because I my average score for those sessions was 77%. I had the feeling of having mastered that level.

When I started with 3 back  the rMSSD dropped to an average of 43.3 for the first ten sessions. 3 back was definitely harder and I was seeing very slow progression in the scores. I recall feeling a bit negative about the process and unsure if I could get better at the task. I did not really try any strategies, I just tried to improve through repetition.

The last four 3 back sessions are interesting. At session fifteen I was thinking about how to move the score I decided to try focussing on only the location and “wing it” for remembering the audio cue. To my surprise BOTH measures went up. I saw better results and got interested about pushing this strategy. For the following sessions you can see both my scores and my rMSSD going up. My rMSSD average for those sessions is 54.25. I was enjoying the process because I saw there was a path to improvement.

What is intriguing is that my rMSSD (and stress) changed not as a result of the scores, but at the specific point I felt I had discovered a way to improve the process. My perception alone drove the change in HRV. My story about improvement and efficacy moved my stress level, not the performance of the game at all. So growth and learning is gradual, but our story about how the progression of the learning can be more dramatic.

Upsets Are Smaller Than They Appear

I had a good opportunity to unpack an Upset in real time. I was with another person and they did something that caught me off guard in a negative way. I was wearing my Polar H7 heart rate belt and was measuring my heart rate variability using Heart Rate Variability Logger app by Marco Altini. Here is a graph showing 30 second snapshots of my rMSSD, a measure of the variability of my heart rate.

Slide1

I know from previous readings that a reading above 48 of my rMSSD is a reading that indicates low stress, an rMSSD below 48 indicates stress. The event that caught me off guard happened at the “13″ time mark on the chart. As it unfolded I chose not to react to the situation and take stock. When it happened my rMSSD was at 51, a comfortable stress free reading. As I sat quietly and processed the event you can see my rMSSD drop to 47, not too bad, then pop back up to 58 which is quite relaxed. When I decided on some level to show I was displeased, shown in the chart at time hack “22,” my rMSSD dropped to 27. This is a reading comparable to being in the dentist chair or firing a shotgun at a range.

So my decision to react and show my displeasure was the stress inducing action, not the original event itself. My decision to be visibly confrontational created the deep negative rMSSD reaction. I think this event has measured my fight/flight response. The response occurred a full four minutes after the original event. So I chose to enter that state.

Once I walked away I maintained my state of Upset. On being clear of the situation you can see the opening reading is still in a somewhat stressful state, but 30 seconds after that I was back in a state of no stress.

Slide2

After I was clear I was still mentally considering my reaction and the event, but I was not physiologically in a confrontational state as measured by my heart rate variability.

So a few insights come from this event. First, the actual event was not the physiological trigger. My interpretation, arrived at a full four minutes after the fact was the trigger. Once into it, the time I was in fight/flight was quite short. Though I felt I was still in an Upset state I had emerged from it a full minute or two earlier.

Interpretation is a choice, Upset results from interpretation. Conflict creates fight/flight, removing oneself from conflict seems to reduce fight/flight reaction. Regardless of the mental rehearsals before and after, an Upset unfolding in real time is quite a bit smaller than it appears when you look to the data.

Dual N-Back, Learning and Heart Rate Variability

Following my Heart Rate Variability, Learning and Flow study I took the recommendations from fellow quantified selfers and ran another round of sessions using a Dual N-Back game produced by the Brain Workshop.

What I did:

  • played a Dual 2-Back brain game on my Mac once or twice sitting at the same location in the morning each day for 8 days,
  • set the game for 90 trials that lasted anywhere from 273 to 282 seconds per session resulting in a measured success score that was expressed in terms of % correct,
  • measured the total heart rate coherence accumulated points score as given by Heartmath Pro over the total session,
  • divided the total accumulated points per session by the number of minutes to derive a “points per minute” score per session,
  • after entering that data into excel graphed the resulting points per session over the learning cycle.

How I did it:

Everything for this study was executed on the Mac. Heartmath Pro, the DualNBack game and excel were all windows on the Mac screen. Because I had set a disciplined approach to the first brain game I simply rotated the method in here.

As before I started the Heartmath Pro and waited until 30 seconds had elapsed so I was getting an HRV based cardiac coherence reading. After the coherence reading began I would start the Dual 2-Back game. The game was approximately 4.5 minutes to play. Here is a short YouTube video showing the mechanic of a Dual N-Back game.

Playing Dual 2-Back meant I was remembering the letter and location shown two iterations prior to the one being show on the screen currently.

What I Learned:

My correct answer percentage per session increased linearly the more I played. When I started I played using instinct then begin using a simple strategy to track the different elements around session 9. From there the learning continued but it was still linear. The strategy alone did not take the scores immediately higher, but it did enable continued improvement.

Slide1My Heart Rate Variability (HRV) also steadily increased the more I played. The points/minute proxy for HRV started at a low of 10 when I started playing and was in the 25 to 30 range at the 15 through 17th session. My subjective experience was of stress and concentration in the early session then more relaxed in the later sessions, mostly because I had worked out a strategy and attributed different scores to my having implemented the strategy well or not. Specifically, my mindset went from “I don’t know how to improve” in sessions 1 through 8 to “I need to implement a known strategy better” in 9 through 17. Here are the points/minute results over the sessions:

Slide2

Dual N-back demands constant attention, unlike the nearly autonomous reactions the category brain game allowed after repeated play. My experience with Dual N-back was consistent low level stress where the category game was more like “zoning out” and watching my fingers hit the screen. In comparison to the range of 10 to 30 points/minute in the Dual N-back game the category game points/minute were routinely between 30 and 50 as shown here:

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One insight I gleaned was that there is no “know it” or “don’t know it” binary state with respect to mastering a task. Knowledge and capability steadily increase as reflected in the quality of the output. Physiological stress decreases steadily as reflected in the increase in HRV. So my own tendency to think of mastery as binary is incorrect. Mastery at the capability and physiological level is a continuum and we move linearly along it. And movement along that continuum is as much about belief in the ability to improve as it is about underlying capability.

HRV, Simple Games & Imagination

After feedback from Bob and Gwern on the learning post I have started collecting heart rate variability (HRV) while playing Dual-N-Back game that Gwern recommended. Dual-N-Back is much more intense than the simple category recognition game I have been measuring. I will share the results there when I gave a good amount of data. Out of curiousity I kept playing the simple game from the first post and continued recording the results.

What I have seen with continued plays of that first simple game has surprised me. According to the principles in Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow I would expect a stress response from my HRV reading in the beginning, a relaxed (high) HRV when I was in Flow then for the reading to taper off as I become bored with the task. I’m not finding that. Here is the graph:

Slide1

What has happened is after the first sessions of learning how to use the category game (session 1 through 6) my HRV became relaxed and has stayed there. In fact the “up-down-up-down” you see on the graph is an expression of the fact I do two or three sessions a day and sometimes I get into a groove in different sessions. The graph if you average the sessions across the day eliminates this and is clearer on how stable my HRV has been once I familiarized myself with the game:

Slide2

So this particular category game engages my attention enough to get me into a relaxed state that yields consistently higher HRV. I am a bit thoughtful during the task and at times my mind wanders because I am bored. And the numbers show that I am averaging a much higher HRV overall after having become familiar with the task.

What I see in the different session scores is a state of attention playing out. When I am engaged and focus my HRV as reflected in the points scores is higher. Each time I play I use the same tablet at the same desk in the same sound and light environment. The task is the same, and I usually score the same amount of points. What is different is whether I have a story in my head that I should be doing something else or have been doing the task for too long. That story is completely from my imagination. So imagination drives HRV as much as anything.

Heart Rate Variability, Learning & Flow

I looked at how my Heart Rate Variability (HRV) changed through the process of learning a simple task from introduction of the activity through to a point where the task was nearly pre-conscious and automatic. I compared the change in HRV to Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of moving from anxiety through Flow to boredom.

What I did:

  • played an Android based “brain game” twice through for approximately 4.5 minutes per session for twelve sessions,
  • measured the total heart rate coherence accumulated points score as given by Heartmath Pro over the total session,
  • divided the total accumulated points per session by the number of minutes to derive a “points per minute” score per session,
  • after entering that data into excel graphed the resulting points per session over the learning cycle.

How I did it:

In each session I would start Heartmath Pro and wait until 30 seconds had elapsed so I was getting an HRV based cardiac coherence reading. As soon as software started getting this reading started I would begin to play “Mind Games” on a Nexus 7 tablet. The game I played was 120 seconds long and included choosing one of four categories appropriate for a shown picture. The choices were cards, dice, cars or people and this example screenshot shows an image for a car with the four buttons below:

Screenshot_2014-10-09-10-15-10

 

I played two repetitions of the 120 second game per HRV reading session for an approximate total session length of 4.5 minutes and two sessions a day for six days.

Heartmath Pro awards points per five second interval based on a “coherence score.” The score is based on the ratio of Low Frequency cardiac output to High Frequency, where cardiac coherence is considered to be achieved when all frequencies group in the Low Frequency band around .1Hz. Every five seconds the software awards achievement points based on the coherence score, meaning if your coherence score was 3.5 for that five seconds the software adds 3.5 points to your points total. The final outcome of a session looks like the this:

Slide1

This scoring is a proxy for how variable your heart rate was during a session and thus how relaxed your physiology was in the period. Comparing the points total per minute to other measures like LF/HF and rMSSD show that higher points per minute and more “stress free” LF/HF and rMSSD correlate.

Once the sessions were completed I entered the session length and score in an excel spreadsheet which then calculated the points/minute for that session. In the session shown above 138 achievement points divided by 4.52 minutes gave an outcome of 40.9 points/minute. Scores playing the game over the twelve sessions ranged from 21.0 to 52.3 points/minute.

What I learned:

My initial idea was to avoid creating stress with the mind game by not paying attention to the mind game score, which was a measure of correctly categorized images. I was trying to only engage my attention and take a reading of HRV. I wanted to compare my HRV during engaged attention to a baseline where I let my mind wander and to when I was working on a computer. It was in session seven where I entered a very relaxed state and both the points/session and the mind game scores were going noticeably upward that I started looking at this learning curve in isolation.

In that seventh session I entered a relaxed state and no longer had to think about the answer as the image flashed on the screen. My fingers just moved. By sessions eight through eleven I was watching my fingers move without really thinking at all. And time, while it did not disappear, was no longer in my attention. I thought I may have entered a state described by Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow theory where  challenge and skills balance, as shown in this graph:

Flow Channel Image

When undertaking a task and the challenges match the skills and feedback is immediate one enters a relaxed and enjoyable state where time seems to disappear and the action just emerges. In the seventh and eighth sessions I realized this might be happening. Here is how that change in state was reflected in my HRV readings:

Slide1

As higher HRV is associated with a relaxed state, what we see here is my physiological reaction to a challenge of a uniform difficulty was becoming more relaxed with repetition.

My subjective experience in sessions one through five was that of feeling “alert in the head” meaning I was calculating the answers as the images came up. And I was keenly aware of the time during each session and recall saying “only 20 seconds to go” or “only one more session.” This was a state of low level stress and anxiety.

Session six still felt like that but the HRV points/minute score was starting upward. By session seven the subjective experience started to change. I was relaxed during those sessions and time, while not completely gone, seemed to fade. My HRV points/minute continued upward. During session eleven and twelve the scores seemed to drop. I was doing the brain game automatically and not feeling stress of doing the game but my mind was starting to wander to other topics. Boredom had begun.

Using the Flow chart this is what I think the HRV chart shows:

Slide2

In the first five sessions my HRV reading was an average of 25 points/minute. As subjectively I began entering the Flow state from session six through ten my average HRV reading was 43 points/minute. During session 11 and 12 as my mind started to wander a bit the average on those sessions was 35 points per minute. Not stress, but not as relaxed and engaged.

Issues and Next Steps:

The issue here is I am writing this up before gathering sufficient data to see the full curve. For example, if I keep playing the game to absolute stultifying boredom where does the HRV points/minute level out? And how do I add challenge that is compatible with the “learned skill” of choosing the four categories?

The next steps are to see if HRV can be an indicator of location on the Flow continuum with respect to a learning task. If so, the challenge inherent in that task can be adjusted if the HRV readings indicatate that the learner is either 1) not emerging from early stages of learning anxiety or 2) the learner is dropping into a state of boredom because the task is mastered.

The Problem of Split Attention

In a heart rate session today I was in nice focus and high coherence until I thought of a to-do that I had to take care of later in the day. There was a navigational “I have to be somewhere else” feel and at that moment my RR interbeat interval went sideways as shown below in the red circle:

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What was happening? In that moment I was trying to hold two things in my attention – one my breath as it followed the up and down journey of my interbeat interval, and the second the phone call I had to make. My nervous system then dropped the variability of my heart rate.

After recognizing the moment of split attention I returned my attention to my breath and the variability returned. In this case thought clearly triggered a change in variability, and releasing the thought returned the variability to its start point.

What was happening? A hypothesis is that I overwhelmed my conscious processing capacity of 126 bits per second as described by Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of Flow. Flow is a very fashionable framework and I think it is useful. Three things are necessary for Flow when undertaking a task – clear goals, clear feedback and a perceived balance of challenge versus perceived skills.

The task I was engaged in was focussing on my heart rate for 30 minutes. I perceived that I could make the phone call, so I was not out of balance in that sense. There was no feedback change. I think what happened is that I questioned my goals – should I instead be making the phone call versus sitting measuring heart rate variability?

Maintaining the integrity of moment to moment attention somehow has to be tied into how I prioritize my actions. From where does the framework for prioritizing actions come? It may be a shortcut to maintaining a lower level of stress.

rMSSD – Finding the Right Metric

My question throughout these months of study has been around unnecessary distraction from an enjoyable life due to stressing out about things that did not merit the stress. My very first results were around surprising ways I was stressing myself out that on examination disappeared. Most of this work was self reported upsets. 

Once I started down the road to finding technology that could help me know when I was upset things became very complicated very fast. There are a large number of devices that claim to measure stress but my experience was that they were not consistently reading stress events. I highlight Heartmath in a lot of my work and it does provide a good baseline for relaxed coherence, but the technology is virtually unusable in all but quiet meditative session. For example, if you turn your head the readings will drop out to zero which is not very useful if you are meeting someone in a coffee shop. 

I have spent a lot of time with apps and Bluetooth heart rate belts. I built my knowledge reading academic papers and with off the shelf apps got to the point I have a good set of readings on stress events. The most complicated manual structure I devised was this:

  • take a reading with a Polar H7 heart rate sensor,
  • capture the output in SweetbeatLife app,
  • email the results to myself from the app,
  • download that associate file
  • import the data in that file to Kubios,
  • in Kubios cut the data into 30 second increments which meant three keystrokes repeated up to 120 times,
  • generate a pdf report that shows 11 different heart rate variability features,
  • enter the data from those features back into a spreadsheet (typically 660 entries),
  • manually tag whether I was clear headed or upset in a new column on the spreadsheet,
  • save that spreadsheet to CSV format,
  • copy a text version of that CSV format into the WEKA arff format,
  • use that arff formatted data to run an Artifical Neural Network in WEKA,
  • reword that WEKA data back into a prose form that said “this is how much I was upset or not”

I got pretty good results that were consistent with some academic papers I read and I had the satisfaction of learning a lot about HRV, and the process was not sustainable. I want to take readings while shooting shotguns and getting a foot massage, not spend all my time crunching data. 

To cut through that complexity and make the measuring and reading of data a small part of the experience I am settling on rMSSD as a single metric on which I am going to focus. Both the SweetBeatLIfe app and HeartRateLogger give a real time rMSSD reading and have that as an exportable feature. I can use Kubios to extract it from all the Heartmath work I have done. And I was pleased to read in an academic paper “SDNN/RMSSD as a Surrogate for LF/HF: A Revised Investigation” in Section 4.1 titled “The Epoch Aspect” that the rMSSD was a stable measurement when used in 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, 300 and 600 second readings. That means there has been some work done to support the fact that an rMSSD on 30 second increments can be reliable as long as I compare it to other 30 second increments. The study also indicates that rMSSD is a good proxy for the frequency based measurements that many of the apps use to indicate stress. 

So with my process of data collection vastly simplified I can work on refining and interpreting data given the various contexts I will be operating in. Administrative burden relieved I am off to the foot masseuse. 

 

 

Doc’s Needle Better Than Dentist Drill

Finishing off my service provider stress-off I had the opportunity to take a reading while getting shots at the Doctor. I used the Polar H7, SweetBeat Life and Kubios to pull the data together. I was quite surprised to see that getting a needle stuck in me was not nearly as stressful at having the tooth drilled, and other then the moment of anticipation prior to the jab I was quite relaxed. 

Slide1

You can see at time had 2 I was anticipating the jab and the jab itself happened between 3 and 4. Afterward I was quite pleased when it was over. So looking across service providers my stress leader board looks like this:

Slide2

When relaxed my average pNN50 was just a bit higher than getting a needle at the doctor. Doctors win gold, hairdressers win silver and dentists get a distant bronze. I use average pNN50 read at 30 second intervals to compare because the length of time I was in an anticipatory state and the time of treatment was different for each provider.

I can only speculate why the stress levels were not what I was expecting. I would have guessed a doctor’s jab would be nearer the dentists drill. Two factors may have influenced the readings, both related to mental state. First, the length of time was different for each. The doctor’s needle was very fast. The haircut had not pain, but it was 45 minutes long. And I was in the dentists chair for an hour during which 20 minutes was drilling. So mentally I was working on different time horizons. 

Second, the certainty of outcome and context was different. In the doctors office my wife was with me, we were joking around and discussing our upcoming trip to Vietnam. We know the doctor and the atmosphere was quite convivial. The jab was going to be quick and done. So my relaxed state was consistent with those environmental factors. The haircut was with a long time and trusted provider and sadly I had to tell him at the end I was moving from London to San Francisco and would no longer be seeing him. So the readings tail off at the end where I said goodbye. Finally, the dentist was putting in a filling “to see how it goes” with the possibility that if they drilled and found the tooth in too bad a shape more detailed, longer and painful work was going to have necessary. So the anticipation in that chair was very high stakes. 

Despite my calling this a description of the effect of the doctor and dentist, what we are actually seeing is the physiological output of my expectations. Where this journey has taken us is where it began. My interpretation of the situation fires my physiological stress. With the doctor, dentist and hairdresser I was sitting and they were using a sharp object to bring on some physical improvement. In each case my own interpretation of what was happening and what was about to happen triggered my reaction, so we continue to show that all stress has a powerful subjective element.    

Hairdresser beats Dentist in Stress-off

Taking my heart reading while getting a haircut begins to flush out the professional services stress leaderboard. Using Polar H7 heart rate strap and a new app, the Heart Rate Variability Logger by Marco Altini I captured several time domain measurements for the comparison.

In this case I used the pNN50 which is a percentage of the normal heartbeat intervals that are greater than 50 milliseconds. The intuition there is if a low percentage of your heartbeat intervals are over 50 milliseconds then your heart is beating regularly and quickly, so you are likely in an excited state. Conversely, if 30% of your heartbeats are over 50 milliseconds you have a fair bit of variability in the beats.

Here is the comparison:

Slide1The green line above is the average of my baseline when relaxed (32% pNN50) and the red line below is the stressed baseline (4.5% pNN50). These measurements are all taken over consecutive 30 second periods so I am comparing apples to apples.

The orange line shows a snapshot of the tooth drilling session at the dentist. As you can see, it closely follows the stress average. The purple line is the haircut. Much higher pNN50, averaging up around 20%. Much less stress for sure.

So though getting a haircut is not as relaxing as meditation, if you are having a bad day head over to your hairdresser for a trim. It may put you in a better mood.

 

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